1 Thomas Edison:
He was an American, who epitomized the spirit of inquiry and entrepreneurship. He has many inventions to his credit such as phonograph, electric bulb, telephone, movie camera, microphone and alkaline batteries. As a shrewd businessman, he patented all his inventions and commercialized through his company Thomson, which later became the Thales Group.
The 3rd Century BC, Greek scientist, born in Syracuse, Archimedes invented the sciences of mechanics and hydrostatics, laws of levers and pulleys, the center of gravity, calculated the value of pie, discovered the formulas for the volume and surface area of a sphere, use of exponents for writing bigger numbers, Archimedean Screw, highly accurate catapult.
3 Benjamin Franklin (17th January, 1706 -17th April, 1790):
He is considered the Founding Father of the United States and was a renowned polymath, scientist, inventor, civic activist, printer, freemason, inventor, engineer, author, politician, diplomat, statesman and political theorist. He invented lightning rod, bifocal lenses and experiments in nano-science. He established a university and the Fire Department of Philadelphia.
4.Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1832-@8th September 1895):
He was a French Chemist and Micro-biologist. He discovered the Principles of vaccination, pasteurization and microbial fermentation. He invented vaccines for rabies and anthrax and preventive medicines for puerperal fever. He postulated the germ theory of disease.
5 Sir Alexander Fleming (6th August 1881- 11th March 1955):
He was a Scottish Biologist, Botanist and Pharmacologist. His inventions included enzyme lysozyme in the anti-biotic substance benzylpenicilin (Penicilin) for which he was awarded Nobel Prize.