Abbas II Hilmi Bey (also known as ‘Abbās Ḥilmī Pasha) (Arabic: عباس حلمي باشا) (14 July 1874 – 19 December 1944) was the last Khedive (Ottoman viceroy) of Egypt and Sudan, ruling from 8 January 1892 to 19 December 1914.[nb 1] In 1914, after Turkey joined the Central Powers in World War I, the nationalist Khedive was removed by the British, then ruling Egypt, in favor of his more pro-British uncle, Hussein Kamel, marking the de facto end of Egypt’s four-century era as a province of the Ottoman Empire, which had begun in 1517.
Abbas II, the great-great-grandson of Muhammad Ali, was born in Alexandria, Egypt on 14 July 1874. He succeeded his father, Tewfik Pasha, as Khedive of Egypt and Sudan on 8 January 1892. As a boy he visited the United Kingdom, and he had a number of British tutors in Cairo including a governess who taught him English. In a profile of Abbas II, the boys’ annual, Chums, gives a lengthy account of his education. His father established a small school near the Abdin Palace in Cairo where European, Arab and Turkish masters taught Abbas and his brother Prince Mehemet Ali. An American officer in the Egyptian army took charge of his military training. He attended school at Lausanne, Switzerland; then, at the age of twelve he was sent to the Haxius School in Geneva, in preparation for his entry into the Theresianum in Vienna. In addition to Turkish, he had good conversational knowledge of English, French and German. He didn’t speak Arabic