Mahamahopadhyay Pandit Mahesh Chandra Nyayratna Bhattacharyya, CIE (22 February 1836 – 12 April 1906), was an Indian scholar of Sanskrit, and the principal of the Sanskrit College between 1876 and 1895. A friend and colleague of Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, he played an important role in the Bengal Renaissance. He was one of the most eminent Bengalis in Kolkata of the nineteenth century.
Mahesh Chandra Nyayratna Bhattacharyya, who was one of the most distinguished Sanskrit scholars in India, was born on 22 February 1836 to a Kulin Brahmin family of the highest rank, the Bhattacharyya family of Narit, which has long been distinguished for the zealous cultivation of Sanskrit learning, and the number of learned Pandits it has produced. His father, Harinarayan Tarkasiddhanta, and his two uncles, Guruprasad Tarkapanchanan and Thakurdas Churamani, were eminent Pandits. His elder brother, Pandit Madhab Chandra Sarbabhauma, was the Sabha Pandit of Mahishadal Raj.
In 1848, he married Mandakini, the daughter of Pandit Ram Chand Tarkabagis, in Jehanabad, Hooghly.
He had a daughter, Manorama, and three sons – Manmatha Nath Vidyaratna Bhattacharyya, MA (first Indian Accountant General of Madras), born April 1863, Munindra Nath Bhattacharyya, MA, BL (Vakil of the High Court of Calcutta), born February 1868 and Mahima Nath Bhattacharyya, BA (first Indian Collector in the Excise Department, Government of India), born April 1870.
He died at the age of 70 on 12 April 1906.